The religious head of the Roman Catholic Church is called the Pope. He is also the Bishop of Rome. He is elected by the College of Cardinals which is the pope's chief advisory body and are the ones responsible to elect his successor for life upon his death or retirement. They (as a group) are ranked next to the Pope in ecclesiastical authority. Members of the College of Cardinals who are less than
Read The Full Article:
The religious head of the Roman Catholic Church is called the Pope. He is also the Bishop of Rome. He is elected by the College of Cardinals which is the pope's chief advisory body and are the ones responsible to elect his successor for life upon his death or retirement. They (as a group) are ranked next to the Pope in ecclesiastical authority. Members of the College of Cardinals who are less than 80 years old elect the Pope for life. In order for someone to be elected as a new Pope, he must be named on two-thirds of the ballots cast, where each member of the College of Cardinals must vote. After which, he must be asked by the dean of cardinals if he accepts such a post. If he accepts, he is then asked to choose a name.
This list of popes is arranged in chronological order along with their years of reign (the years of their papacies). Included in this list also are (names written in Italics that represent) Popes that have never been acknowledged and are thus considered to be Anti-popes. Anti-pope is a person claiming to be or elected pope in opposition to the one chosen by church law, as during a schism. Those claims are treated as invalid today by the Roman Catholic Church. The Vatican?s official list of popes is called the Annuario Pontificio and there have been 265 Popes according to this list. These are ones who are validly considered to be the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. However, this list will be 266. There was a man elected in 752 for Pope but died three days afterwards. He was listed on the Vatican?s official list as Stephen II until 1960, but he has been erased since the 1961 edition. Stephen II can be found in the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia.
The list starts with Peter (St. Peter the Apostle), who is traditionally believed and considered by the Roman Catholics to be the first Pope because of his appointment by Jesus where he received the keys to the kingdom of heaven and his role in organizing the Church. According to the Holy Bible Matthew 16:18-19. "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church" Matt 16:18. As such, this plays an important tradition for the Catholics who believe that the pope has jurisdiction over the entire Christian church in matters of faith, morals and church government. This list ends with Benedict XVI, the most recent pope.
Note: You can find books on the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church here:
Books on Roman Catholic Popes | Catholicism For Dummies
Today I wanted to finding something funny so I goggled Will Ferrell, that zany guy from Saturday Night Live. And I was not disappointed. Transbuddha.com features Will Ferrell as US President George W. Bush talking about global warming. This is an absolute laugh-out-loud parody of the president discussing climate change. At [...]
Read The Full Article:
This is the list of all entries received so far, in reverse chronological order, that I will use to choose the winner of Pete Dunne's book. If I don't have you listed here, please email your entry or post it to comments here;
Entries submitted in the comments sectionRead the comments on this post...
A circular magnetic sled could fling microsatellites into space cheaply.
On Monday, Wired Magazine released documents detailing AT&T's involvement in the National Security Agency's recent warrantless domestic surveillance scandal. The documents give whistle-blower Mark Klein's description of the technical aspects of how the questionable wiretapping operation was carried out. With a lawsuit currently pending against AT&T, the documents remain sealed, but Wired obained the documents from an anonymous source:
In 2003 AT&T built "secret rooms" hidden deep in the bowels of its central offices in various cities, housing computer gear for a government spy operation which taps into the company's popular WorldNet service and the entire internet. These installations enable the government to look at every individual message on the internet and analyze exactly what people are doing. Documents showing the hardwire installation in San Francisco suggest that there are similar locations being installed in numerous other cities.
The physical arrangement, the timing of its construction, the government-imposed secrecy surrounding it and other factors all strongly suggest that its origins are rooted in the Defense Department's Total Information Awareness (TIA) program which brought forth vigorous protests from defenders of constitutionally protected civil liberties [in 2003]....
...In San Francisco the "secret room" is Room 641A at 611 Folsom Street, the site of a large SBC phone building, three floors of which are occupied by AT&T. High-speed fiber-optic circuits come in on the 8th floor and run down to the 7th floor where they connect to routers for AT&T's WorldNet service, part of the latter's vital "Common Backbone." In order to snoop on these circuits, a special cabinet was installed and cabled to the "secret room" on the 6th floor to monitor the information going through the circuits. (The location code of the cabinet is 070177.04, which denotes the 7th floor, aisle 177 and bay 04.) The "secret room" itself is roughly 24-by-48 feet, containing perhaps a dozen cabinets including such equipment as Sun servers and two Juniper routers, plus an industrial-size air conditioner.
The normal work force of unionized technicians in the office are forbidden to enter the "secret room," which has a special combination lock on the main door. The telltale sign of an illicit government spy operation is the fact that only people with security clearance from the National Security Agency can enter this room. In practice this has meant that only one management-level technician works in there. Ironically, the one who set up the room was laid off in late 2003 in one of the company's endless "downsizings," but he was quickly replaced by another.
Before publishing these documents we showed them to independent security experts, who agreed they pose no significant danger to AT&T. For example, they do not reveal information that hackers might use to easily attack the company's systems.
The court's gag order is very specific in barring only the EFF, its representatives and its technical experts from discussing and disseminating this information. The court explicitly rejected AT&T's motion to include Klein in the gag order and declined AT&T's request to force the EFF to return the documents.
This is the infrastructure for an Orwellian police state. It must be shut down!
Apparently, I wasted four years of my life working on an undergraduate degree, or at least I did if I wanted to work my way into the Bush Administration. And, let's not even get started on graduate school....
From The Harvard Crimson:
A 26-year-old college dropout who carries President Bush?s breath mints and makes him peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches will follow in his boss?s footsteps this fall when he enrolls at Harvard Business School (HBS).
Though it is rare for HBS?or any other professional or graduate school?to admit a student who does not have an undergraduate degree, admissions officers made an exception for Blake Gottesman, who for four years has served as special assistant and personal aide to Bush.
In his current role, Gottesman performs a wide range of duties, from dog-sitting the president?s Scottish terriers, Barney and Miss Beazley, to carrying the president?s speeches and giving him the ?two-minute warning? before a speech begins.
Gottesman has declined all requests for comment on his business school admission, but White House staffers have described him as loyal, warm, and fun-loving.
And yet another entry ... this is fun! I wish I could host such a fun contest every week! Below the fold is another entry that you'll enjoy;
The book would be nice but seeing people's original and not-so-original names is fun! Here are mine, some original, most not;Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...
Long before David Beaty became associate Chief Scientist for NASA's Mars Program, he was a prospector. Beaty spent 10 years surveying remote parts of Earth for precious metals and another 12 years hunting for oil. And this qualifies him to work for NASA? Precisely.